Outline[ edit ] CLT is interested in giving students the skills to be able to communicate under various circumstances. As such, it places less emphasis on the learning of specific grammatical rules and more on obtaining native-speaker-like fluency and pronunciation.
Communicative Language Teaching CLTwhich is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages, emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. Task-based language learning, a more recent refinement of CLT, has gained considerably in popularity.
Shortcomings of structuralism and behaviorism The theories underlying the audiolingual method and the situational language teaching were widely criticized during the s.
Noam Chomsky, for instance, rejected the structuralist view of language and demonstrated that there is a distinction between performance and competence. The goal of the linguist is to study the linguistic competence native speakers are endowed with.
A shift towards communicative proficiency The increasing interdependency between the European countries necessitated a need for a greater effort to teach adults the principal languages of the continent.
New goals were set in language teaching profession: The paramount importance of communication aspects of language. The increasing interest in meaningful learning. The growing centrality of the learner in teaching processes. The subordinate importance of structural teaching of language.
The speech act theory showed that we do something when we speak a language. We use language cf Halliday to get things, to create interaction with others, to express personal feelings, to create a world of imagination, to communicate information.
They described two kinds of meanings. One language competence or numerous competences? For Chomsky the focus of linguistics was to describe the linguistic competence that enables speakers to produce grammatically correct sentences.
He advocated the need of a theory that incorporate communication competence. It must be a definition of what a speaker needs to know in order to be communicatively competent in a speech community.
Later Canale and Swaine described four dimensions of communicative competence. Stephen Krashen later advocated in his language learning theory that there should be a distinction between learning and acquiring.
He sees acquisition as the basic process involved in developing language proficiency and distinguishes this process from learning.
Acquisition is an unconscious process that involves the naturalistic development of language proficiency while learning is the conscious internalization of the rules of language. It results in explicit knowledge about the forms of language and the ability to verbalize this knowledge.
Learning according to Krashen can not lead to acquisition. Syllabus Communicative language teaching syllabus organizes the teaching according to the notional and functional categories of language rather than according to its structures.
It concentrates on the following: Merits of CLT There are many advantages in teaching according to the communicative approach: CLT is a holistic approach.
It takes into consideration communicative dimension of language. CLT provides vitality and motivation within the classroom. CLT is a learner centered approach.
It capitalizes on the interests and needs of the learner. In a world where communication of information and information technology have broken new considerable ground, CLT can play an important role in education. Criticism Notional syllabus was criticized as merely replacing one kind of list, namely a list of grammatical structures, with another list of notions and functions.
The various categories of language functions are overlapping and not systematically graded like the structures of the language. The communicative approach focuses on the use of language in everyday situations, or the functional aspects of language, and less on the formal structures.
There must be a certain balance between the two. It gives priority to meanings and rules of use rather than to grammar and rules of structure. Such concentration on language behavior may result in negative consequences in the sense that important structures and rules would be left out.
The approach relies extensively on the functional-notational syllabus which places heavy demands on the learners.the British Communicative Approach to Language Teaching, we might argue that consciousness-raising with regard to the social role of language created a predisposition among British thinkers about language teaching of the mid and later 20th century to accept.
Communicative language teaching (CLT), or the communicative approach, is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of .
The Communicative Approach is based on the idea that learning a language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. In the Communicative Approach, the main objective is to present a topic in context as natural as possible.
The communicative approach is based on the idea that learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use the language.
What Is the Communicative Approach? In the s and ’70s there was a growing suspicion surrounding the efficacy of the grammar-translation approach to teaching language.. This approach was of the mind that language has building blocks, and you combine these building blocks in order to come up with meaningful communication.
In the intervening years, the communicative approach has been adapted to the elementary, middle, secondary, and post-secondary levels, and the underlying philosophy has spawned different teaching methods known under a variety of names, including notional-functional, teaching for proficiency, proficiency-based instruction, and communicative.