This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract All organisms are connected in a complex web of relationships. Although many of these are benign, not all are, and everything alive devotes significant resources to identifying and neutralizing threats from other species.
MALT mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue Diff: A in a circular pattern within the tissues B away from the heart only C toward the heart only D both toward and away from the heart E into the capillaries Answer: A milking action of skeletal muscles B pressure changes within the thorax C the pumping action of the heart D smooth muscle contractions within the lymphatic vessels E presence of valves within the larger lymph vessels Answer: A they remove foreign materials from the lymph fluid B they have valves similar to those found in veins C they contain lymphocytes D they act as filters along the lymphatic vessels E they contain macrophages Answer: A phagocytes B natural killer cells C skin and mucous membranes D inflammatory response E fever Answer: A faster B slower C the same speed D sometimes faster and sometimes slower E not comparable in speed Answer: A intact skin B antibody production C the inflammatory response D fever E natural killer cells Answer: A dilate blood vessels B attract phagocytes to the area C stimulate Immune system and page ref essay of lysozyme D cause capillaries to become leaky E activate pain receptors Answer: A denaturing scrambling proteins B stimulating the liver and spleen to gather up iron and zinc C increasing metabolic rate of tissue cells D stimulating complement fixation E speeding up repair processes Answer: A individual exposure to the specific foreign substance B individual genetic makeup C the total number of lymphocytes present at a given time D the total number of macrophages at a given time E the total number of self-antigens at a given time Answer: A naturally acquired active immunity B naturally acquired passive immunity C artificially acquired active immunity D artificially acquired passive immunity E artificially acquired natural immunity Answer: A naturally acquired active immunity B naturally acquired passive immunity C artificially acquired active immunity D artificially acquired passive immunity E naturally acquired artificial immunity Answer: A they consist of four amino acid chains B they are linked together by disulfide bonds C the heavy chains are identicalD the heavy chains are about amino acids long E the light chains are often of differing lengths Answer: A is mainly found in mucus and secretions such as tears and saliva B is passed from mother to fetus during pregnancy C is the most abundant antibody in blood plasma D can fix complement E is involved in allergies Answer: A an unrelated person B a parent C a different animal species D the same person E an identical twin Answer: A corticosteroids B radiation C antiproliferative drugs D gamma globulin E immunosuppressive drugs Answer: A immediate hypersensitivity B acute hypersensitivity C delayed hypersensitivity D anaphylactic shock E immunodeficiency Answer: Lymph fluid arises from blood plasma that has been forced out of the capillary beds by osmotic and hydrostatic pressures.
The fluid left behind is called interstitial fluid. The interstitial fluid is then picked up by lymph capillaries, after which it is called lymph. Lymph is routed up the lymphatic vessels until it is finally returned to the venous system through either the right lymphatic duct or the thoracic duct.
The return of lymph to the heart is aided by: Skin produces acid secretions that inhibit bacterial growth, and sebum contains chemicals that are toxic to bacteria.
Vaginal secretions are highly acidic. The stomach mucosa secretes hydrochloric acid and protein-digesting enzymes, both of which can kill pathogens. Saliva and tears contain lysozyme, an enzyme that destroys bacteria.
Mucus is a sticky mucous membrane secretion that traps microorganisms. The four most common indicators of the inflammatory response are redness, heat, swelling, and pain. Redness and heat are a result of dilation of blood vessels that increase blood flow to the injured area. Swelling occurs when increa sed permeability of the capillaries allows plasma to leak from the bloodstream into the tissue spaces.
The excess fluid, or edema, triggers the activation of pain receptors in the area, accounting for the pain associated with an injury. Phagocytes, such as neutrophils or macrophages, engulf foreign particles.
These cells are in nearly every body organ and confront pathoge ns that make it through the surface membrane barriers. Natural killer cells, found in blood and lymph, are lymphocytes. They can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells.
The inflammatory response is a nonspecific response that occurs when body tissues are injured. Autografts are tissue grafts transplanted from one site to another within the same person. Isografts are tissue grafts harves ted from a genetically identical person identical twin.
Allografts are tissue grafts harvested from an unrelated person. Xenografts are tissue grafts harvested from different animal species. Inefficient lymphocyte programming is one theory that suggests self-reactive B or T cells escape to the rest of the body. Another theory is that self -proteins appear within the circulation that were not previously exposed to the immune system, thus initiating an immune response.
Another theory is that antibodies produced against fore ign antigens cross-react with self-antigens such as when streptococcal bacteria crossreact with heart antigens causing rheumatic fever.Essay on Immune System; Essay on Immune System.
Effects of Progeria on Immune System Essay. How Psychological States Affect the Immune System Essay. Discusses the premise that the psychological state affects the immune system with reference to the psychological state of persons with enhanced functioning immune .
Immune System. A human body needs a guardian that protects it from numerous harmful influences of the environment. The immune system plays the role of such a guardian.
The rejection of a transplanted organ by the immune system of the recipient is a result of a cell-mediated immune response, rather than antibody-mediated response. With reference to one animal or human disease, explain why its economic consequences vary spatially.
WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE IN Immune system. . There are individual systems of the immune system, innate immunity which we are born with and it is non-specific.
It is genetically based and passed on to our offspring and adaptive immunity in which we acquire through humoral and cell mediated immunity. Innate and adaptive immune systems are. There's a specialist from your university waiting to help you with that essay. Tell us what you need to have done now!
order now. The Immune System Essay The Immune System The immune system is a group of cells, molecules, and tissues that help defend the body against diseases and other harmful invaders. The immune system provides protection against a variety of potentially damaging substances that can invade the body.
These substances include disease .